Library staff manage patron loans in FOLIO through three primary apps - Check in, Check out, and Users. Staff also can view information about loans in the Circulation log and Inventory apps.
The terms of a loan - who can borrow, how long they can borrow the item for, whether it can be renewed, what notices patrons receive, and whether any charges are accrued if the item is late - are determined by the circulation rule that is applied when the item is loaned, renewed, or has a due date change.
Loans data structure
In FOLIO, a loan object contains specific information that supports circulation functions and reporting.
- userId. The UUID of the patron who borrowed the item. If the loan is closed and anonymized, the userId is removed from the loan record.
- proxyUserId. If the item is borrowed by someone on behalf of another borrower using FOLIO’s proxy function, the proxy’s UUID is stored
- itemId. This is the inventory UUID of the item that was loaned.
- itemEffectiveLocationIdAtCheckOut. This is the effective location of the item when it was checked out.
- status. This is the status of the loan - usually open or closed.
- loanDate. This is the date/time the item was loaned.
- dueDate : This is the date/time that the item is due back. This date can change if the item is successfully renewed, or if a FOLIO user changes the loan due date.
- returnDate : If the item has been returned, this is the return date/time. Returning the item may or may not change the loan status to closed - it depends on whether a fee/fine was charged.
- systemReturnDate : If the return was back-dated, the return date is the backdated date/time, and the systemReturnDate is the actual date/time the item was returned in the Check in app. .
- action : This is the last action performed on a loan - values include declaredLost, renewed, renewedThroughOverride, checkedin, checkedout, checkedOutThroughOverride, recallrequested, holdrequested, claimedReturned, markedMissing, closedLoan.itemAgedToLost, dueDateChanged, checkedInReturnedByPatron, checkedInFoundByLibrary
- itemStatus: This is the last item status in relation to this loan. This may or may not be the item’s current status in Inventory. For example, if a loan has been checked back in and put in transit back to its home location, the loan itemStatus field is In transit, but the item in Inventory may be Checked out if the item has since been loaned to another patron.
- renewalCount: This is the number of times the loan has been renewed.
- loanPolicyId: This is the UUID for the applicable loan policy.
- checkoutServicePointId : This is the UUID of the service point where the FOLIO user was logged in when the item was loaned to the patron.
- checkinServicePointId : if the item has been returned, this is the UUID of the service point where the FOLIO user who returned the item was logged in.
- patronGroupIdAtCheckout: This is the UUID of the patron’s group at the time of checkout.
- dueDateChangedByRecall: This is a true/false value indicating if the item’s due date has been changed by a recall for another patron.
- declaredLostDate: If the loan is declared lost, the date of that declaration is stored in this attribute.
- claimedReturnedDate: If the loan has been marked claim returned, the date it was marked claimed returned is stored in this attribute.
- overdueFinePolicyId: This is the UUID for the associated overdue fine policy, assigned when the loan is created. It is not updated when the loan is renewed.
- lostItemPolicyId: This is the UUID for the associated lost item policy, assigned when the loan is created. It is not updated when the loan is renewed.
- agedToLostDelayedBilling: FOLIO declares an item lost, and then bills the patron, in separate processes. These attributes on the loan object support that process.
What does FOLIO consider a short-term loan? What is considered a long-term loan?
FOLIO treats loan activity differently depending on whether it is a short-term or a long-term loan. The distinction depends on the time interval of the loan.
- If an item is loaned for minutes or hours, the loan is a short-term loan.
- If an item is loaned for days, weeks, or months, the loan is a long-term loan.
Differences between the two types of loans include:
The time a loan is due. A short-term loan sets its due date based on the loan date/time and the loan policy; a long-term loan sets its due date based on the loan policy and the loan date, but the due time is always 11:59 PM.
- For example: suppose a patron borrows an item from a service point open 9 AM to 10 PM seven days a week. If they borrow the item at 11 AM on April 1st, and the loan policy says they can borrow it for 48 hours, it will be due at 11 AM on April 3rd. But, if the loan policy said they could borrow the item for 2 days, it would be instead be due at 11:59 PM on April 3rd, even though the service point is closed
How notices are delivered. Notices for short-term loans are always delivered in real time. Most notices for long-term loans are also delivered in real-time, except for notices triggered by Loan due date/time. Those notices must use the multiple items tokens and are processed overnight (beginning at 11:59 PM).
When a loan is renewed, or a loan due date is changed, what circulation rule applies and what policies are used?
When a patron or FOLIO user requests to renew a loan, or a FOLIO user changes a loan’s due date, FOLIO reviews the circulation rule file and may do several things, depending on what it finds.
- FOLIO will find the loan policy that applies and use that policy to determine if or how the loan can be changed. If the circulation rule file hasn’t changed, and the patron and item information hasn’t changed, FOLIO will retrieve and apply the same loan policy used the last time the loan was created or updated.
- No request policy updates occur, because request policies aren’t stored on the loan. Since request policies only apply before the loan is created, there is no reason to keep a reference on the loan record.
- FOLIO will not update the associated overdue policy and lost item policy, because it could cause the patron to be liable for more money than they had expected when they first borrowed the item.
- FOLIO will update scheduled notices. The notice policy UUID is not stored on the loan. Instead, FOLIO reads the applicable notice policy from the circulation rule and updates scheduled planned notices as part of the renewal transaction.
Example: An undergraduate becomes a graduate student
Suppose Sofia Cruz is an undergraduate at Main University.
Main University has a circulation rule file that has different rules for patron groups. Main allows undergraduates to borrow books for 28 days with unlimited renewals, and allows graduate students to borrow books for 90 days with unlimited renewals. Two circulation rules in FOLIO make that happen:
g undergrad: l 28-day-loan r hold-only n standard-notice o standard-overdue i standard-lost g grad-student: l 90-day-loan r allow-all n standard-notice o standard-overdue i standard-lost
Sofia’s FOLIO account has a user group of `undergrad’, so the first line in this rule applies. They are able to borrow books for a 28 day rolling loan with unlimited renewals.
Suppose Sofia borrows several books in February and continues to use them, so they continue renewing their loans. Over the summer, they start a graduate program at Main University, and the patron group on their FOLIO record changes from
undergrad’ to grad-student’.
The next time Sofia renews their books, the second line of the circulation rule file applies:
g grad-student: l 90-day-loan r allow-all n standard-notice o standard-overdue i standard-lost
This is what FOLIO does when renewing Sofia’s items:
- FOLIO checks the circulation rule file and determines that it should use the circ rule line that begins
g grad-student …
- FOLIO updates the loan policy UUID stored on Sofia’s loans to the UUID for the policy
90-day-loanand gives Sofia the new, 90-day rolling loan period.
- There is no request policy stored on the loan record, so nothing changes there.
- The overdue policy ID and lost item policy ID are stored on the loan record, but they are not updated when the loan is renewed or has the due date changed. That’s because a new overdue or lost item policy could potentially mean the patron owed more money than they were expecting if the item became overdue or aged to lost.
- FOLIO reads in the notice policy from the circ rule. FOLIO then creates the scheduled notices in the notice database according to the policy and deletes previously scheduled notices that now don’t need to be sent.
What happens w/circulation rules and policies if you change item information after an item is loaned (e.g., change a loan type for an item that is checked out)?
If you change information about an item that is currently on loan, nothing happens to the loan record. The loan may change if the item is renewed or if the loan due date is changed, and the change in the item information means a different circulation rule applies. See When a loan is renewed, or a loan due date is changed, what circulation rule applies and what policies are used?
What happens if/when you delete a circulation policy?
In Kiwi, you can delete a loan policy that is attached to an open loan. This can cause significant problems with circulation rules as patrons attempt to renew loans; therefore, it’s recommended that you check for existing loan records that reference the loan policy before attempting to delete it.
An API query tool like Postman can allow you to query your loan records for the loanPolicyId UUID. For example, if your loan policy ID was
ab-123-45 then a query request for records that had that loan policy UUID would look like this, sent to your tenant instance of Okapi:
As of Lotus, you will be prevented from deleting a loan policy through Settings > Circulation > Loan Policies if there are open loans associated with the loan policy.
In Kiwi, you can delete a request policy that is part of circulation rules. If you do so, and then go review your circulation rules, you’ll see that any rule that referenced the request policy will still be in the file, but the request policy will be listed with the policy UUID rather than the policy name.
Request policies are only referenced when a request is placed, and are not stored on a subsequent loan, so they are fairly simple to delete, with the recommendation that you review your circ rules first.
For example, suppose you need to delete the request policy allow-all. The recommendation is to review your existing circulation rules and replace any references to allow-all with another request policy. Once you’ve done that, you can delete ‘allow-all’ from Settings > Circulation > Request Policies.
In Kiwi, you can delete a notice policy that is part of circulation rules. If you do so, and then go review your rules, you’ll see that references to the deleted policy in the circ rules file will have been replaced with the policy UUID rather than the policy name.
Notice policies are only referenced when a loan is created, renewed, or a due-date is changed. They are fairly simple to delete, with the recommendation that you remove references to them in your circulation rules first.
For example, suppose you need to delete the notice policy faculty-semester-notice. First, you would review your circulation rules and update any references to faculty-semester-notice with another notice policy. Once you’ve done that, you can delete faculty-semester-notice from Settings > Circulation > Notice policies.
In Kiwi, you can delete an overdue policy that is attached to an open loan. This can cause significant problems with circulation rules as items are returned and overdue loans might be applied; it’s recommended you not delete the policy without first checking to ensure it is not associated with any open loans.
An API query tool like Postman can allow you to query your loan records for the overdueFinePolicyId. For example, if your overdue fine policy UUID was
py-67lp-12 then a query request for records that had that loan policy UUID would look like this, sent to your tenant instance of Okapi:
As of Lotus, you will be prevented from deleting an overdue fine policy through Settings > Circulation > Fee/Fine if there are open loans associated with the policy.
Lost item policy
In Kiwi, you can delete a lost item policy that is attached to an open loan. This can cause significant problems with circulation rules as items are returned and overdue loans might be applied; it’s recommended you not delete the policy without first checking to ensure it is not associated with any open loans.
An API query tool like Postman can allow you to query your loan records for the lostItemPolicyId. For example, if your overdue fine policy UUID was ‘fhg99-as1230o-11’ then a query request for records that had that policy ID would look like this, sent to your tenant instance of Okapi:
As of Lotus, you will be prevented from deleting a lost item policy through Settings > Circulation > Fee/Fine if there are open loans associated with the policy.
What happens if/when you delete a circulation rule?
If you remove a circulation rule from your circulation rule file, nothing happens to existing loans that used that circulation rule.
If a user tries to renew a loan that would have been renewed with the circulation rule that was removed from the file, FOLIO will review the circ rules for another matching rule. If it does not find at least one other matching rule remaining in the file, it will use the fallback rule.
How does FOLIO work with self-check stations?
FOLIO supports SIP2, an industry standard protocol for connecting self-service stations to library systems.
Patron self-service systems can connect to FOLIO with SIP2 using FOLIO’s SIP2 edge module. Setting this up generally requires working with your FOLIO administrator and/or hosting provider.
More information on SIP2 configuration can be found in the edge module documentation in Github - https://github.com/folio-org/edge-sip2Last modified May 25, 2022